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Nisa (Nusai) – Capital of the Parthian Empire.


Ashkhabad is a capital of Turkmenistan, the largest administrative-political, industrial, scientific and cultural centre of the state.

Ashkhabad International Airport. The area of a five-floor building of the main terminal with the handling capacity of 14 million passengers a year exceeds 190 thousand square meters. Along with the second terminal provided for receipt over 3 million of passengers the modern air terminal will enable to serve in total more than 17 million people a year or about 2 thousand passengers an hour. Through the cargo terminal 200 thousand tons of cargo will be handled.

The new airport has two runways including all necessary infrastructure; their length is 3 thousand 800 meters. The air traffic control service is equipped with the very latest navigation equipment. The airport will be able to receive aircraft of any type and load capacity thus providing service at a world level.



“Halk hakydasy” (“National Memory”) Memorial Complex is a memorial complex in honor of honoring of the victims died in the Geoktepebattle, war 1941-1945 as well as commemoration of the victims of the Ashkhabad earthquake 1948. The monument is located in a south-western part of Ashkhabad.

The construction commenced in September 2012 by Turkish Polimeks.  On 5th October the official name - “Halk hakydasy” was given to the memorial complex. The memorial complex was opened on 6th October on the Memorial Day with the participation of President of Turkmenistan Gurbanguly Berdymukhamedov.


The memorial complex occupies the area of 650 thousand square meters. The length is 916 meters and the width is 626 meters. The complex includes a monument erected in honor of the Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945 as well as the monuments immortalizing a memory of the heroes died in the Gyokdepe battle and the victims of the Ashkhabad earthquake 1948. The museum is erected as well; the building for conduction of Muslim ceremony sadaka is provided. Close to the monuments the fountains are erected; lawns and flower beds are arranged; paths are laid and decorative fixtures and benches are installed. In the night time the complex is illuminated by projectors.


“Altyn Asyr” Eastern Bazaar is the biggest market in Ashkhabad. The national name is “New Tolkuchka”. Bazaar is located five kilometers to the north of the capital in the Choganly residential community. The official opening of “Altyn Asyr” was held in 2011. The market is built in a form of national gel – a pattern on a traditional Turkmen carpet and it may be seen from the bird’s eye. Bazaar is divided into numerous sectors and its total area occupies 154 hectares. “Altyn Asyr” is translated from the Turkmen language as the Golden Age. In the centre of the eastern bazaar a high tower with hours is installed helping the buyers to be orientated themselves on the huge territory. The architectural structures are erected in a classical oriental style, thus, not only trade pavilions but complete trade complexes are built. “Altyn Asyr” eastern bazaar represents a small trade settlement, where the infrastructure is developed in full. On the bazaar territory a hotel, numerous cafes and bars are arranged, where it is possible to have a bite and a rest while shopping. “Altyn Asyr” market is fully equipped with telecommunications; the transport system is also arranged by which it is possible to move across bazaar. In “Altyn Asyr” market it is possible to find everything that anyone wishes - magnificent Turkmen carpets, national costumes and headdresses, applied art articles, fabric, textiles, ornaments, fruit and vegetables, marble and stone articles - figures and figurines of the well-known Turkmen racers.

 Ertogrul Gazi Mosque. This fine building is distinguished by its originality. 

It is erected under the project of known architect 

Mukharrem Khilmi Shenalp. The Osman Empire Epoch mosques stand at the sources of this magnificent architectural monument.

The architect aimed to enliven the mosques’ architecture of that epoch on the Turkmen land. The mosque walls are cast with concrete in full. In the mosque construction the articles of specialists and handicraftsmen were used. White marble is used, which has been famous for its strength since the most ancient times. From the outer side the mosque’s walls are faced with the stones, which composition includes calcium carbonate. The stones are attached to the walls by corrosion-proof metal.



The State Museum of the State Cultural Centre of Turkmenistan. The State Museum of the State Cultural Centre became the first museum, which was opened in Turkmenistan over the years of independence. This graceful architectural complex is located in the picturesque Kopetdag foothills. The central building is topped with a sky-blue dome consisting of 16 hemispherical faces.

The halls of the Museum Central Building are devoted to the centuries-old history of Turkmenistan. The Museum’s visitors would expect a fascinating journey to the past world, a narration on historical events, and an opportunity for seeing original articles of various epochs. A special pride of the Museum collection is invaluable curiosities, fruits of laborious work of the Turkmen and foreign archeologists in the course of excavations of Nissan, Ancient Marv and other historical-and-cultural monuments. The unique articles of the Parthia Empire arts are stored in the hall – Eros’s and Athena’s tiny figurines, silver eagle plated with gold, which strike by their elaborately made small items. The outstanding samples of Parthia art are ivory ritons.

In the exposition of the Museum of Ethnography and Local History, Geography and Gulture of the State Museum of Turkmenistan the most valuable exhibits are available -  Kunyaurgench meteorite of the weight of  820kg fallen in 1998 in Kunyaurgench  of Dashoguz velayat, fossils and footprints of ancient organisms found on the territory of Turkmenistan. The most ancient of the exhibits presented here is a fossilized piece of wood of the Paleozoic period, which age is 270 million years. Here, Turkmenistan flora and fauna is widely presented.

The ethnographic collection is made of articles of a way of life, women’s, men’s and children’s clothes, samples of Turkmen arms, national musical instruments, manuscript books, etc. In the department, it is possible to get acquainted with a collection weaved out of silk and embroidered national clothes. The women’s dresses are decorated with wonderful embroidery. The thin patterns created by the skilled craftswomen are in harmony with a beauty of the Turkmen nature.

The jeweler collection created by the craftsmen-zergars starting from the ХVII century totals more than one and a half thousand exhibits. They are not only the articles urged to highlight the women’s beauty but they have a deep sacral sense going by its roots in the remote past. Here, it is possible to see such ancient ornaments as “guppa”, “chekelik”, “adamlyk”, “egme”, “gulyaka”, “tumar’, “dagdan” and others. Such rich of various ornaments makes an indelible impression.

30, Archabil Avenue, Ashkhabad

Working hours of the Administration: from 9 00 to 18 00

Lunch time: from 13 00 to 14 00

Days off: Saturday and Sunday; Tuesday - the Museum is closed for visitors

Bus routes: 9, 20, 34, 37, 42, 56


The Museum of Turkmen Carpet. The Museum is located in the centre of Ashkhabad. On the area more than 2000 square metres more than 300 carpets are ehibited and about 1000 caperts are stored in the Museum . The ancient carpet made at the beginning of the XVII century is aong them. The capert awarded for inclusion in Guinness Book occupies a main place in the Capert Museum. A group of  the Ersars‘ and Yumuds‘ carpets is widely presented.

If to think about antiquity of the Turkmen carpet art history it is possible to tell that not the centuries decorate it but the carpet decorates the centuries. One example often mentioned by Marco Polo living in the ХIII century  in his book in Chapter ХХI says: “Know, the thinnest and most beautiful carpets in the world are made here; perfect, rich fabrics of red and other colour are weaved and a lot of other things are manufactured here as well“.

According to technique and aesthetic content the Turkmen carpet is referred to an antiques category. One of the main advantages of this carpet is its high density, which is from 200 to 400 thousand knots and more per one square meter. Thanks to a high density the carpet ornament is clear and expressive. The range of carpet colors is restrained and noble.

The Turkmen carpet has one more surprising advantage. Not becoming aged in the course of time, it gets new properties: the paints become nobler and a surface – more velvety.



NISA is an ancient town located in the Kopetdag foothills. It is one of the first capitals of the Parthian Empire (III century BC - III century AD) included in a category of the largest state formations of the antique world. In Nisa, palace and temple structures and treasuries were concentrated; huge wine-storehouse and warehouses were located with numerous stocks. The fortress walls had the thickness of 8-9 meters in the basis and were reinforced by 43 rectangular towers.






KOV-ATA - that means in the translation “a father of caves”.

As a result of researches it is established that the cave length is 250 meters. The most part of the cave territory is occupied by the lake. The Bakharden cave is among rather ancient cavities according to the geological age; presently, its bottom part is filled with thermal waters.






Ancient SARAKHS is an ancient city in the Tedzhen riverheads. The settling of Sarakhs oasis started in the Eneolithic epoch (IV millennium BC). Throughout all its existence Sarakhs underwent the periods of blossoming and decline. The main thing that glorified Sarakhs was the architectural school, unique for all Middle East, which existed in the XI-XII centuries. The craftsmen-builders from Sarakhs became so wide popular that they were invited for erection of unique structures in many towns of Iran and Central Asia.


GEOKDEPE FORTRESS is a defensive structure of Akhal teke. It was built 45 kilometers to the north-west of Ashkhabad in 1879. Its walls represented an earthen embankment surrounded by ah ditch faced with a clay layer. Their height was 4m; the thickness at the basis was up to 10m and from above - up to 5m. The entire perimeter was 4,4km. The fortress territory (40 hectares) was absolutely equal, only in a north-west corner the ancient hill was towered and slightly to the south there was a fenced yard and the wells. During the fortress siege a half of all oasis inhabitants (about 45 thousand people) gathered there.



MYANE-BABA MAUSOLEUM.Among the remained architectural monuments of Turkmenistan Abu-Said Meikheniysky mausoleum in Myane settlement of Kaahka region takes an important place according to its historical-and-architectural importance.

The mausoleum is known among the people as Myane-baba tomb. Abu-Said mausoleum was built in the medieval town - Mekhne in the XI century in the period of formation and establishment of the powerful Seljuk state, within the time of Khorasan economic blossoming. The mausoleum was erected over a tomb of known sheikh-mystic Abu Said ibn Abul-Hayra (968-1049), who was known as a historic figure.



Anev. Themonuments of the Eneolithic epoch are located in the south of Turkmenistan, mainly, between Gyzylarbat and Gosuyri (Tedzhen). The hill among them in the north of Anev is worthy to be mentioned as the first. The first scientific expedition working here was the American expedition conducted in 1904 under the guidance of R. Pampelli. He divided a hill cultural layer into four epochs and recorded in the history under the name “Anev Culture”.



Seyitdzhemaleddin Mosque. Thisbuilding known under the name Seyitdzhemaleddin mosque was very complex and performed the functions of a mosque, crypt, madrassah and khanakan.

On the mosque portal top in a large inscription, where a name of Khorasan sovereign Sultan Abul-Kasym-Babur (1446-1457) is mentioned, it is written: “This structure was erected in an epoch of governing of Sultan the Great, sovereign of his people, patron of countries and centuries Abul-Kasym-Babur Bakhadurkhan. Let the Most High immortalize his power and his governing”.

In other chronicles  there were data that “the House of Beauty”  was built  by the person named Mukhammet at the cost of his own means for the monument to his father Dzhemal-ed-Dunya-Va-D-Din in 1455-1456.




Altyndepe. One of the towns appeared in BC is Altyndepe located between Myane and Chyache villages of Kaka region. In Altyndepe there were protective fortress wallss, a prayer house, dwelling houses, workmanship and other facilities.

The workmanship especially flourished in the town. The workmanship branch was specialized in metalwork. The forging and metal melting methods were found. Thus metalwork improvement promoted the expansion of arable farming. The work productivity development led to origination of private property and it favorably affected the further development of a society.

The peculiar feature for the town was workmanship in private stamping, jewelries out of metal, precious stones and elephant ivory. The stamps found are a vivid example of private property.

The numerous sculptures found in the ancient monuments of town-type Altyndepe and Namazgadepe are mainly represented by the women’s figures. Such sculptures were stored in each farm. Before going to field works people worshipped to such sculptures. Thus, they satisfied their spiritual needs and considered that a good luck in work was directly connected with worship to the sculptures.


Meikhene. One of the main towns of Khaveran region is Meikhene. According to the manuscript sources and archeological excavations, the town especially developed in the ХІ-ХІІ centuries. Meikhene was located on a road from Abuvert to Saragt. The numerous grain crops were cultivated around Meikhene, therefore, the historians considered it as one of the centers of Khaveran’s breadwinners. In 1040 before Sultan Gaznavi Masud’s attacks only in one Idris caravansary there were about 40 scales for wheat weighing. Shikh Abu-Seyit the Great lived in Meikhene, who gave his blessing to Seljuks to fight with Masud and Seljuks’ Shahs Chagry-bek and Togrul-bek. Later, Seljuks attached great attention to Abu-Seyid’s crypt and mausoleum.

In the ХІ-ХІІ centuries the arch was built on a high hill of the town. It was erected in a square plan and surrounded by its fortress wall reinforced with semicircular towers. On a southern part there were ancient Arabic malele Zakal” and a mosque. Abu-Seyit built khanaka for the Sufies near it; and the mausoleum was built after his death.



Abul-Fazla (Sapagtbaba) Mausoleum. In Geroglybeg epoch Saragt’s building craftsmen achieved great successes. The buildings erected by Saragt’s architects decorated dozens of Iran and Central Asia medieval towns. One of the surprising works of Saragt’s craftsmen was Abul-Fazla mausoleum, which was called among the people as Saragt-baba mausoleum. It was built in the ХІ century near to Saragt on a tomb of Muslim thinker Abul-Fazla died in 1023.

Abyverd. Abyverd was one of the large towns of Northern Khorasan. After an epoch of conquest by the Arabs it was mentioned in the manuscript sources more often. Makdesi briefly characterized Abyverd; he wrote that in comparison with Nusai, he liked Abyverd more. In the town there was a bazaar and in the bazaar there was a mosque.

In the Persian geographical record “Khudud al-Alem” Baverda (Abyverd) was characterized as a wide sowing field. In the ХІ century in a fight between Seljuks and Gaznavis for the sake of Khorasan conquest Abu-al-Fazl Baikhaky  mentioned Abyverd a few times as a settlement; it was visited sometimes  by Togrul beg and sometimes – by Sultan Gaznavi Masud.

In excavations of Abyverd ruins in the south-west and north-west side of the town workmanship’s wards were found; in that places iron alloys and iron pieces were found. In a central part of the town in the ruins of main buildings there were found women’s jewelry ornaments that testified to work of silver and jewelry craftsmen.

Medieval Abyverd (Peshdag is located near to the Kaka railway station) was surrounded by the fortress walls reinforced by semi-circular towers;  from an outer side it was surrounded by reinforced fencing and a trench filled with water not allowing the enemy to come into the town. The city had a square arrangement; its only gates were in the south-west side. In the town centre there is a mosque built in the ХІІ century and a small ground adjoining to it.

The arch is on the northeast wall of the town; it is also surrounded by a semicircular tower. Rabat, mainly, was stretched in the southern and western side. Here, there was a workmanship manufacturing. Also, in rabat there was a bazaar for a barter trade exchange of articles of the town craftsmen with the nomads’ goods.