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Avaza (Turkmenbashi city). Everyone, who gets to Turkmenistan through its western “air gateway” - Turkmenbashi International Airport, has a chance,  when the aircraft descends to the height of the bird’s eye, to see a surprising view. It appears in a window admiring with a strict proportion of lines and rich, contrast colors filled with a vital force.


National Tourist Zone “Avaza’ is a resort in the east of the Caspian Sea, national tourist zone of Turkmenistan located twelve kilometers from Turkmenbashi. It is included as a part of Turkmenbashi Avaza etrap of Balkan velayat.


Dekhistan (Mashady-Missirian). In the Western Turkmenistan 90 kilometers to the north-west of the centre of Etrek present-day regional centre the central town of the region was located in an epoch of Goroglybeg known under the name of Dekhistan - Missirian and 7 kilometers to the north of it - spacious ruins of Mashat cemetery.


The archaeological data confirm that the town blossomed in ХІ-ХІІ centuries, when it was the property of Khorezm shahs. After Mongols’ attacks a life still proceeded in the town and it disappeared in full at the end of the ХV century.


         The lower canals of the Etrek River, a region of ancient Dekhistan - Mashad-Missirian, are one of the places, where a lot of population lived in the Iron Age. In these places there were large arable farming villages; the population was mainly engaged in agriculture. The population developed new places, built important irrigation structures: canals, drains for mutual irrigation, dams and water inlets. The large main canal width was 5-7 meters; the depth was 2.3-2.7 meters and the length reached dozens of kilometers.

         Dekhistan regions were called in ancient geography as Gircania country. Much later, namely in the antique period Girvania territory and Gircan state was mentioned to certain extend.

 The whole south-eastern zone of the Caspian Sea was called as Gircania territory. Gircania has left a large trace in history. During a certain period of history the Caspian Sea was called as the Gircan Sea.


         Namazga Mosque.

In 1970s while the excavations under the guidance of E. Atagarryev 1.5 kilometers to the south of the town 

walls the mosque’s rests were found. Probably, this mosque is the most ancient mosque in Turkmenistan. The archaeological data and architectural particles give the grounds for dating of the mosque in namazg form to Х-ХІ centuries. Munber of the diameter of 6.5 meters remained from a lower ground out of a burnt brick; eight steps ran to it out of a brick. Long times before these steps were faced with wooden. Munber was faced with brick in full.



Shirkabir Mosque-mausoleum. One of the well-remained Dekhistan monuments and one of valuable for architecture history of Turkmenistan. Its small height covered with a dome is 11 meters. In this building there is a mekhrab. Probably, the deceased’s funeral traditions were conducted there. Also, the building had the mosque functions. On the basis of the patterns’ peculiarities this building is dated to the Х century.

         Ancient Parav (Ferava) - Near Parav village of present-day Serdar region there was a small town “Parav” referred to the Middle Ages. According to the historical sources, Parav fortress was founded by Abdulla ibn Takhyr, Takhyr’s crown shah who governed in 830-844.

 The X century historian wrote: “Parav is a fortress built for confrontation to the Guzs in a desert. It is located far away from the settlement. In the fortress there are mosques, where the border guards live but they are in a small number, however, they are fully equipped with arms. The population does not reach one thousand people”.

 The fortress served, on the one hand, for repulse of attacks of the foothill villages’ nomads and, on the other hand, it was one of the trade points between Khoresm and Khorasan. According to the data of the Х century historians, a life in those times seethed in Parav. In the fortress there were sewage; the population reached thousand people. In Х-ХІ centuries Parav became one of the developed towns from the political and economic point of view. The silver coins found here testified to it. In that epoch Parav was a part of the Khorezm state.


 In the ХІ-ХІІ centuries as a result of adoption of the Islamic religion the buildings for religious purposes began to be erected more often. On the town territory and its suburb there were numerous architectural buildings. The architectural shape of Parav mosque as well as Bibi mausoleum attaches the greatest interest among them.  The mausoleum is located in the Kopetdag plain.



Yangy-gala Canyon. “Fiery Rocks”, “Pink Canyon” – the area is called so on Ustyurt ancient plateau to the south of the Garabogaz-gol bay in the north-west of Balkan velayat (165km from Balkanabad and 160km from Turkmenbashi).

The mountain county looks more like a mirage and a fairy tale... Ten million years ago at the bottom of the Tetis ancient ocean limestone sedimentary rocks were formed thus composing the region. The modern Caspian Sea is a successor of this huge reservoir of the remote past.

The canyons represent an unlikely beautiful show. The most interesting thing is that depending on the time of a day a color of rocks varies immediately before one’s eyes - from purely white to bright-red. But they are especially beautiful at sunset, when everything around is painted in fiery tones. The similar sight may be seen in Chinese Sinzyan, which is also called as “Fiery Mountains”.



Mud Volcanoes. The Mud volcanoes are one of the main surprising places of Balkan velayat. The mud volcanoes deliver to the land surface loamy and ancient solid substances from the bottom layers with participation of hydrocarbon gases. As a result, separate masses, plains such as Gumdag, Boyadag and Mondzhukly are formed.

 The south-western Turkmenistan is a part of a huge zone of clay deposits of the Caspian lowlands, which thickness reaches 10-12 kilometers, actively delaminated and composed in an epoch of neogenes. On the southern coast of the Caspian Sea there are about 30 clay volcanoes. More than 10 among them are active in present.


Mollakara Sanatorium. Mollakara sanatorium is located on the Uzboy coast, which flows from the Amudarya waters of the Sarykamysh Lake to the Caspian Sea. The sanatorium territory is surrounded by the Karakum desert, where there is not enough vegetation.  15 kilometers from Mollakara the Small Balkan Mountains originate; 30 kilometers to the west there is the Caspian Sea

        Mollakara salty lakes attracted people still in 90s of the ХІХ centuries in a period of construction of Central Asia railway. However, at the beginning the attention was given not to availability of mud medical property but to the salt export. Salt was in a considerable quantity. Its formation is explained by a water peculiarity of Mollakara lakes. In winter months the water increases, the area of lakes extends and some lakes form a chain of lakes, which length reaches dozens kilometers. In summer months as a result of strong water evaporation the lakes’ area decreases, gathering of salt solutions is increased and leads to subsidence of salts in water. Thus, the fully salt layer is formed, which thickness at the bottom of the lake reaches 1 meter. Just the history of development of Mollakara lakes’ riches starts from producing of these salt deposits.